The Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas (FORTH) contributed to the return of a large number of distinguished and younger scientists to our country who work as researchers or associate professors in Greek universities.
The FORTH is one of the largest and most well-organized research centers in Greece. It operates under the supervision of the General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT) of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs and consists of six Research Institutes in important locations throughout Greece: Heraklion, Rethymnon, Patras and Ioannina.
The headquarters of FORTH are located in Heraklion, Crete.
It has to be noted that the Foundation contributes to Regional Development, it has Research and Technology partnerships with 300 Institutions, it created the ACT Network aiming to connect Research with Production, it also created three Technology Parks in Heraklion, Patras, and Thessaloniki – now only the park in Heraklion is run by the institute, it creates jobs, it funds and administrates the names ending in [«.gr»] in the Greek Web, it operates the internationally accredited sector of FORTHcert, which provides immediate response to emergency systems related to security and network needs, It participates in the development and operation of the Greek Open Line Complaints for Illegal Content on the Internet Safeline, it provides electromagnetic radiation measurement services from mobile phone antennas in urban environments and develops interactive systems, web services and smart environments that support the quality of life of the elderly and the disabled in various aspects of everyday life.
Furthermore, the scientists of IESL led by Professor. K. Fotakis designed and built an innovative laser system specifically for the cleansing and the promotion of the Athens Acropolis sculptures (distinction award Keck in 2012 by the International Conservation of Historical Monuments Institute and works of Art). This laser system can also function at two wavelengths or to put it more simply it emits radiation in two «colors» simultaneously (infrared at 1064 nm and UV at 355 nm). It is used by the maintainers who look after these historical monuments for 14 years so far and it is unique worldwide. This innovation is based in the simultaneous use of two laser beams which allows the maintenance operator to remove accurately fouling contamination from the surface of the sculpture, thus, ensuring that the initial substrate will neither discolor or undergo some other damage, revealing, therefore, its unique surface. Indeed, this is the result of a long-term collaboration between IESL-FORTH researchers and the Acropolis Restoration Service (ARC) of the A’ Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities Agency along with the Acropolis Museum.
This system was used for the removal of fouling due to the environmental pollution from the sculptures of the Acropolis of Athens (e,g the Frieze and the Parthenon fronts, the Porch of the Erechtheion, the Caryatids and other sculptures which are now in the Acropolis Museum). Technology has recently caught the attention of the Palace Museum of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China, with which there is the creation of a Joint Laboratory is being prepared.
Even more, FORTH promotes the economic and social results of Research and Technology aiming at:
• strengthening the competitiveness of the Greek economy
• increasing productivity
• increasing employment in knowledge-intensive occupations
• creating new stable and well-paid jobs
The above targets are promoted through two basic mechanisms:
(a) Connection with the production (spin-offs, licensing, know-how diffusion to businesses through partnerships, etc.).
(b) Further education, training, and expertise through research-technological activities (including relevant EU Research and Technology programs).
It focuses on New Research Directions based on the cooperation between Institutes and other Research and Academic Establishments in such fields as Geo informatics, Bio informatics, Ambient Intelligence, Recording and Maintenance of Cultural Heritage, Nano Technology, Photonics, Advanced Materials, Micro / Nano-electronics, Photonics, Environment and Sustainable Development, Marine Science and Technology (Marine Acoustics, Climate Change Impact, Natural Disasters), Life Sciences, Pharmaceutical Bio Technology in Health Services (e g the use of native plants in Biomedicine and food industry), bio fuels (plants as a source of energy), Neuro science, Educational Research (the impact of the study of Technology on learning), assessing the role of innovation in modern Greek society and history.
During the 32 years of presence in the research scene, The Technology and Research Foundation can also show some very important achievements:
• it is top in all benchmarking Research Institutions of the country till today carried by international committees under the supervision of the General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT). The most recent evaluation took place in early 2014.
• According to the 7th Report of the European Committee »Seventh FP7 Monitoring Report 2013» on the successful funding attraction on a competitive basis by the EU during 2007-2013 under the 7th Framework Program (FP7), the Technology and Research Foundation is in the first place among all Greek Academic and Research Institutions. It holds the 15th place among all European research organizations and the 40th when all universities are included.
• It offers unique research facilities in the country and high-level know-how. A typical example constitutes that it is chosen by the EU to supply European research facilities in the fields of lasers, Polymer, Cultural Heritage and Nano materials.
• It produces high-quality scientific and technological research, as it is shown by the publications in high appeal international journals, thus,contributing to the promotion of our country internationally.
• FORTH researchers have realized 355 competitive projects with a total budget of over € 141.8 million.
• Domain of 101 patents, out of which 39 are currently in force.
•International Awards from International Scientific Unions among other International Awards. Moreover, its researchers have received 11 Grants from the European Research Council (ERC) and 61 excellence awards Marie Curie.
It has to be noted that FORTH facilities accommodate 231 researchers, 431 Fellows (including PhD candidates), 741 technical experts scientists, technicians and administrators. The total amounts to 1403 people (12.31.2014).
From the Foundation’s 36.2 million € annual revenue, only 6.2 million € come from the regular budget (2014 figures). Analytically, approximately 26.4 million € sustain 1.403 jobs in the FORTH foundations in Heraklion, Patras, Ioannina, Rethymnon and Athens and the rest about 10 million € mainly supply the local economies of these cities and consequently national economy.
FORTH’s contribution to education and training is the following:
– It supports Higher Education and Training. It provides over 280 scholarships per year to doctoral candidates and graduate students who prepare their thesis in FORTH laboratories and over 90 scholarships to undergraduate students and trainee scientists. It participates in interdepartmental institutional graduate programs of universities in the country.
– It has been selected by the EU as a European Center for Training Graduate Students.
– It tour guides school students at its premises and informs them on issues related to modern Science and Technology
-It has founded the Crete University Press (CUP) in agreement with the Pan Cretan Association of America, which until now have published more than 460 titles that support university education and promote Greek culture. Books of the Crete University Press are used in about 1.540 university courses. The Crete University Press have allocated 1.7 million copies of books and have won 17 awards from scientific societies and organizations.
– It has taught new technologies to engineers and scientists (approximately 10.000 people). More particularly, in the field of Cultural Heritage young scientists and conservators from around the world are trained to new cutting-edge technologies. The above are developed in the laboratories of IESL that deal with analysis and maintenance problems in works of art and monuments.
-More particularly, the research activity of the Technology and Research Foundation is:
– FORTHnet SA which was founded in October 1995 and is one of the most dynamically developing Greek companies in the fields of telecommunications and the Internet. It is listed on the Athens Stock Exchange since 2000, and today it holds 32.47% market share among all private providers. Also, it is the largest private operator in Greece based on its subscribers.
– Compite Nt
It is a joint research between FORTH and Compucon Computer Applications SA which led in 2002 to the establishment of the High Technology SA under the name »Compite-nt». The headquarters are located in Thessaloniki and the aim is the commercial exploitation of research results and their scientific / technological knowhow. The core activity involves research, development, design, construction and marketing cutting and engraving systems with the use of laser technology.
– Demcon Advanced Products – Art Innovation
In 1997, the spin off company of High Technology Art Innovation was founded in order to provide innovative products and services in the international market of maintenance works of cultural heritage. The company manufactures and provides systems and tools (specialized multi spectral cameras) addressed to conservators of antiquities and works of art. The company’s headquarters, which now belongs to the group of Demcon, are located in Holland.
– Dysis Medical Systems
In 2002, the spin off company Forth Photonics was founded (currently called DySIS Medical) aiming to develop devices for the cancer diagnosis of cervical cancer based on multi spectral techniques. The devices which were developed improve by 63% the diagnostic accuracy of colposcopy in view to diagnose pre cancer and cervical cancer as well, compared with the conventional detection technologies (through the use of photons in medical diagnostic technology).The headquarters of the company are in Great Britain.
– ΝΑΝΟΤΗΙΝΧ S.A.
It is Engaged in the development and production of nano tubes of high purity and low-cost carbon along with the implementation of their applications in different fields of Nano technology. For instance, in the development of nanocomposite materials for the construction sector, in the creation of multi functional layers and the enrichment of coatings properties (increase in the mechanical strength, electrical or thermal conductivity, etc.), the development of energy applications, water waste membranes and biomedical applications www.nanothinx.com
Uses: automobile industry (bumpers, fuel tanks, tires, paints and surface coatings), defense industry (uniforms, electromagnetic interference coatings), sports gear (rackets, golf and hockey clubs, shoes, bicycles, artificial fabrics), energy applications (batteries, fuel cell parts) and in the field of construction (in antistatic or conductive paints, dyes that resist fire and also at reinforcing and corrective resins). In the field of nano medicine, the use of nano tubes is still in the research level, particularly in targeted drug delivery applications, illustration and diagnosis.
– ADVENT TECHNOLOGIES SA
It was founded in 2005 by researchers of FORTH / HT and collaborating faculty members of the University of Patras and it was funded by industrial partners and private investors as well as the Ministry of Development. It develops new materials and systems for energy applications, such as high temperature fuel cells of PEM type and organic photovoltaics. Since 2012, it has transferred its headquarters in the US, however, retaining its activity and Patras.
– MINOTECH biotechnology is the production unit with biotechnological applications of the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. It constitutes the only microbial biotechnology infrastructure in Greece and throughout the Balkans and it is also one of the 16 key suppliers of restriction enzymes (enzymes which are necessary in the DNA cloning process) worldwide. Its products are addressed to scientists working in research institutions, to the biotechnology industry and clinical laboratories. One of the most important reagent disposal companies of Molecular Biology in Germany, trusts the production of more than 50 products in MINOTECH bio technology. The research laboratory team of the researcher professor Vassilis Bouriotis led to the isolation of the first internationally psychrophilic alkaline phosphatase from bacteria that were isolated from Antarctica. The advantages offered by this enzyme within the DNA fragments cloning process led to a perennial trade agreement between the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB) and the internationally renowned American company New England Biolabs INC.
– Coastal erosion and climate change: The Coastal Research Laboratory of the Institute of Computational Mathematics, has developed techniques to collect data regarding the impact of climate change and human activity on coastal areas. These techniques support the protection from natural disasters (for example erosion, flooding, extreme weather phenomena) and technological disasters (marine pollution). They also encourage proper management and the promotion of natural and cultural heritage combined with the socio-economic risk analysis. The above are applied to the analysis of investment risk and insurance costs in tourist infrastructure due to marine natural disasters and to the support of coastal tourism and marine spatial planning, as well. The scientific knowledge which is derived from relevant research is exploited for the common good through the provision of specialized services to the interested parties, such as the region of Crete, Heraklion Municipality, other coastal municipalities and individuals who own a tourist or hotel businesses.
– Underwater acoustics: The Institute of Computational Mathematics (IACM) has developed a series of integrated computing environments that cover a wide range of sound propagation applications within the sea environment, from the prediction of the performance of underwater acoustic detection equipment (SONAR) – some of them are in use by the Greek Navy – till the training in underwater acoustic issues through multimedia and interactive applications. The above are suitable for example for science museums and aquariums. An early version of such a system which focuses on the sounds of the sea is located in the Crete Aquarium (Thalassocosmos).
At the same time, IESL conducts a pioneering research on the use of laser technology in PK applications, with emphasis on diagnostic and maintenance methods using laser.
More particularly, the following laser techniques have been developed and applied:
– Selective removal of unwanted deposits / layers of objects and cultural heritage monuments through the use of laser radiation without the slightest alteration or destruction of the original surface. Among the most famous examples of the application of this technique worldwide is the removal of deposits due to environmental pollution from the sculptures of the Acropolis of Athens.
– Spectroscopy plasma induced by laser (LIBS – Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) and Raman provide information on the elemental composition and molecular structure of materials and applies, among others to the analysis and identification of pigments in paintings on works of art along with the study of archaeological and historical objects made of metal, ceramic, stone and glass
– Digital Holographic Speckle Interferometry (DHSPI) that enables the recording of data from a distance in order to reveal the internal structural condition of the workpieces in focus. This applies to the study of cultural heritage projects.
– Spectral imaging which enables the design of a piece work to light areas which are not distinguishable by the human eye (for example, ultraviolet and infrared rays), That allows the mapping of the works of art regarding the individual paint layers so as to diagnose the presence of protective layers, possibly over-painted coatings or other subsequent processes, pollutants or drafts.
More research activities follow:
– Building Photocatalytic Materials
Utilizing a lengthy research process on issues about the development and design of new nano materials, the Group Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCM) of the Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser has successfully synthesized an innovative photocatalytic solid in a powder form, which is activated in the presence of visible light (indoor light ). The innovation lies in that it contributes to the degradation of indoor pollutants through the use of visible light in contrast with existing products which function with the use of ultraviolet radiation. This material is also suitable for the degradation of both inorganic and organic contaminants, bacteria and micro organisms. The use of this kind of technology can lead to a financial solution so as to combat indoor pollutants and generally for the administration of the air quality in any interior (households, industrial plants, hospitals, schools, organizations and services).
-Production and marketing of customized Micro and Nanoelectronic materials
The Micro Nanoelectronics Group (OM) of the Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser is widely active in the field of semiconductors and focuses on applications in the following areas: telecommunications, new materials, space technology, security, energy, environment and transport.
Apart from its research activity, since 2000 OM provides a wide range of services and customized products including semiconductor materials, devices and complete integrated circuits as well as a wealth of technical designation (Surface, structure, electronic and optical properties).
In OM’s «customers’ catalog» most Greek Academic institutions are included along with leading universities such as Cambridge, Greek High tech companies, industrial giants and international organizations such as the European Space Agency (ESA).
-Wireless sensor networks for the modernizing of seawater desalination plants.
The desalination of seawater is regarded an established practice aiming to serve areas with limited access to water resources. In fact, one of the major problems associated with the industrial seawater processing procedures relates to the energy requirements for the reverse osmosis process, which recommends the filtering method for the harmful to man water substances through the use of special thin films. Within the framework of Hydrobionets Program (FP7), FORTH designed and materialized a complete wireless network solution for the collection, processing, recording and visualization of information that is sampled at different stages of desalination of water and is used to adjust the chlorine levels in the processed water. The platform was installed in a pilot desalination plant in Barcelona in October 2014.
MatWare: A set of tools for semantic data integration.
We put together information in many applications from different sources. These sources may provide different ways of access and their content contains various heterogeneities (structural, terminology, completeness, etc.). MatWare is a set of tools for the integration of heterogeneous data from multiple sources that allows the creation of semantic warehouses offered to answer complex questions which could not be answered individually by the component sources. It supports all stages of integration, starting from revocation and data transformation, moving to the mappings and comparisons of the schema and the objects, the semantic warehouse renewal and monitoring functions till the visualizations and metrics in order to monitor and evaluate the interconnection of integrated data. The above set is used by scientists of a large European electronic infrastructure (e-infrastructure) for complete information on marine life.
– Exploratory Search Services
These are advanced search services that complement the traditional way of searching (for example, via search machines) which can be applied over existing search systems and can bridge the gap between Web Documents and the developing Web Data. Techniques for different steps of the search process are included such as auto-complete queries, semantic analysis of the search results, gathering of results, reclassification of the results based on semantic analysis, gradual exploration and information navigation, preferences support and others. The above are in use by scientists of a large European electronic infrastructure (e-infrastructure).
– Tools which can apply in medicine and patient management
The Institute has developed tools which can apply in medicine and patient management including: a flexible image processing platform specializing in medical images for post-processing and evaluation of the imaging features. This platform is used in a real clinical research in nephroblastoma in Germany, a platform that provides its users with an easy to use environment for the development, the analysis and the quality evaluation of large, multilevel clinical trials. Indeed, it is an on-line software solution for the visualization and revival of digital pathology images, a web application (my Diabetes Advisor) which is designed to facilitate the patients and their carers so as to deal with their diabetes and tools that automatically provide intelligent and personalized recommendations according to their individual preferences and the patients’ medical conditions.
– Techniques processing three-dimensional sound
The Institute carries out a worldwide pioneering research in the audio processing field with significant results in its codification, the composition of virtual sound environments and the improvement of sound and voice in noisy conditions. Methods are developed which can find the direction of simultaneous and multiple sound sources with high precision around a microphone sensor. The precise localization of sound sources constitutes a major problem in many applications, such as source separation, the improvement of signals in noise conditions, speech recognition, etc. This work was recently awarded the prize Best Student Paper Award at the 23rd European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2015).
– Framework of understanding and description of developing data
Data sets in the Web are constantly evolving in order to describe the constant evolution of our comprehension of the world around us and also to include new knowledge. The Information Systems Laboratory has designed and realized a new framework that allows the identification, analysis and comprehension of the data dynamics within the Web and it is a powerful tool for data analysts in order to understand the dynamics of the information, to trace the new trends which are formed in the advancement of knowledge and also to develop predictive models based on the evolution of the information. This project was developed within the framework of the European DIACHRON and Idea Garden projects and was awarded at ISWC-15 Conference which is the premier worldwide conference in the area of Semantic Web and Linked Data.
– Herodicus – voice guidance system to perform exercises for physical rehabilitation.
Increasing the autonomy and improving the quality of life of the elderly or of people in the rehabilitation phase of mild physical damage necessarily goes through systematic exercising. Herodicus system is developed in order to monitor and automatically guide the user to perform simple exercises. A common camera and algorithms of Mechanical Vision can help so as the position of crucial points of the user’s body are recognized by providing information on the combined position of body parts and the overall posture. We search for the appropriate actions that the user has to perform so as to achieve the intermediate steps of each exercise, giving voice instructions when necessary. The ongoing research system activity involves, among others, automatic learning of appropriate rules so that its operation is easily adapted to people with different body types or specific disabilities without the intervention of the system administrator.
– Monitoring the motion of the human hands
A methodology has been developed that allows a computer to monitor a person’s hands through a camera, recognize and record their movements in great detail and precision in real time. Indeed, this is an achievement that can support many further research objectives. It has to be noted that the software that implements this methodology and is freely available for research purposes in the FORTH website, receives tens of thousands of downloads. However, the technology which has been developed shows an extremely wide range of practical applications and already many European, American and Asian companies have been interested in its use regarded the fields of health, education, interactive games, etc.
CONTROL MECHANISM OF AGING
The IMBB researchers Constantine Palikaras and Dr. Irene Lionaki, supervised by Professor Nektarios Tavernarakis revealed a key molecular signaling pathway that coordinates the creation and at the same time the destruction of the mitochondria within the cells during aging, determining, thus, lifespan.
Mitochondria are organelles which constitute the «power plants» of the cell. They are absolutely necessary for many essential cellular functions. Changes in the number, morphology and the proper functioning of mitochondria affect health and life expectancy of the entire body causing pathological conditions such as cardiomyopathies, neuromuscular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and others. Mitofagia is a selective way to remove and destroy the non-functional mitochondria. However, it remains still unknown how the cells coordinate in two competing processes, namely on the one hand, the creation and recycling of mitochondria, and on the other, their selective destruction and removal. This recent study, using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an experimental system has revealed that DCT-1 / NIX protein on the surface of the mitochondria is the main switch of this mechanism. Reducing mitofagia levels during aging results in a gradual accumulation of mainly non-functional mitochondria, and the reduction of life expectancy. On the contrary, the enhancement of the recycling of mitochondria results in the shielding of cell homeostasis, resistance to stress and a significant increase in life expectancy.
The results of this research are crucial for the research and understanding of aging in humans and it is expected that they will be used to treat concomitant diseases which are characterized by uncontrolled accumulation of mitochondria.
COLD PLASMA DEVICE FOR EFFICIENT POWERFUL DECONTAMINATION OF POLLUTED SOILS
Ch. Tsakiroglou and Chr. Angelopoulos from FORTH / IECHMI and P. Svarnas from the University of Patras developed an innovative soil remediation technology using cold plasma acting as an advanced pollutants oxidation process.
This is done by applying a high electric field between two electrodes, in the gap where the contaminated soil is placed. Oxidation efficiency is very high and pollutants are destroyed (even in oil or in pesticides) very quickly without the need to add chemical agents and therefore, the environmental impact is minimum. This kind of technology allows the reuse of land either in agriculture (food production) or as raw material for the creation of industrial products while it indirectly leads to improved public health through food chain.
– IMS (Institute of Mediterranean Studies)
Reconstructing the submerged ancient city of Olous with geo information methods
These geo information methods include Satellite Positioning Systems, aerial photography with automatic navigation systems (drones) along with geophysical investigations which have been extensively used in large scale for the charting of buried artifacts on shore or even for the detection of archaeological remains (for example shipwrecks). They also have a little contribution to understanding the dynamics of the past in coastal marine environments.
Within the framework of PEFYKA project which was funded by Greece and the EU, the Satellite Remote Sensing and Ancient Environment Laboratory of the Institute of Mediterranean Studies and researcher N. Papadopoulos with the postdoctoral associate K. Symirdani, in collaboration with the Department of Underwater Antiquities, took the initiative to explore the possibilities and limitations of the above geo informatics methods in coastal and submerged locations in Crete.
One of the implementation areas is Poros in Elounda in eastern Crete, which was one of the most important ports of Crete in ancient times playing a strategic role in maritime transport between northern Crete and the Aegean islands. The combination of the results is expected to clarify the image of the topography of ancient Olous, not only in the city area itself but also in the choice of this location for its development.
– ΙCΜ (Institute of Computational Mathematics)
Energy balance in urban environments:
During the recent years, an increase of extreme temperatures is evident. We can also see an increase in the intensity of these phenomena and also an increase in their duration. Heraklion belongs to East Mediterranean which is considered to be one of the most vulnerable areas to climate change. Therefore, the need is urgent to find ways to face this phenomenon as well as to promote prevention measures. For the optimum design of any measures we have to be aware of the way the urban area in conjunction with the heat anthropogenic emissions alter the energy balance locally and lead to global warming. The European URBANFLUXES project is coordinated by the Institute of Computational Mathematics and involves new ideas to utilize data from Earth observation satellites in the direction of improving the quality of life in the cities. The areas of application, apart from Heraklion are London and Basel. More particularly, the following topics are observed; the way the heat in radiation form is distributed in the urban network, how fast the heat is stored in buildings, with what intensity it is transferred from the urban area to the air that is located around the buildings and finally, in which areas heat emissions from human activities are high within the urban network. More information about the project and its results can be found in the following site: http://urbanfluxes.eu.
– ICS (Institute of Computer Science)
Bio- inspired robots
The underwater robotic octopus OctoBot is inspired by the morphology of the octopus and their swimming behavior when they use their tentacles. It is made of flexible materials through the use of a three-dimensional printer and it is designed based on the advanced computational modeling methods of elastodynamic as well as hydrodynamic behavior. Applications of this research are related to the development of innovative underwater systems with alternative propulsion mechanisms, adapted to demanding cases of underwater exploration which need fine precision operations, in the same way as in the study of marine ecosystems. The humanoid robots are increasingly involved in applications which deal with the interaction between humans-robots. Recently, we have developed motion and equilibrium methods in these robots for the first time that take into account their full kinematics and dynamics. This is particularly significant since it will lead to the development of humanoid motion methods in difficult environments, which is something that has not yet been achieved internationally. Moreover, models have been developed and implemented that give the robot the ability to perceive time concepts such as past, future, fast, slow, direct, etc. The integration of these technologies in humanoid robotic systems will immensely contribute to the achievement of the objective that humans can live with robots.
The history of FORTH follows:
The Research Center of Crete (RCC) starts its operation in Heraklion, Crete, which included three institutes: the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), the Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL) and the Institute of Computer Science (ICS) in collaboration with the University of Crete.
Two additional institutes are established: the Institute of Computational Mathematics (IACM) in Heraklion and the Institute of Mediterranean Studies (IMS) in Rethymnon. The Trai Cener (ΕΚΕΚ) with the assistance of the Pan-Cretan Association of America established the Crete University Press (CUP) in Heraklion.
Two new Institutes are added: the Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Processes (ICE) located in Patra (founded in 1984) and the Research Institute of Chemical Process Engineering (CPERI) in Thessaloniki (founded in 1984 ).
These seven institutes constitute the FORTH, which is administratively independent from the universities.
Also the Skinakas Observatory is created with the scientific cooperation of the Institute of Technology & Research (FORTH), the University of Crete and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany.
Network ACT (HELP-FORWARD Hellenic Project for Wider Application of R & D) is established on the initiative of the Foundation for Research and Technology (FORTH), the Federation of Enterprises (SEV) and the Federation of Industries of Northern Greece (FING).
The Science and Technology Park of Crete (STEP-C) is established initiated by FORTH aiming at disseminating know-how which is generated in the Academic community and Research Institutes.
The Institute of Chemical Process Engineering (CPERI) in Thessaloniki detaches from FORTH so as to become the core of the National Center for Research and Technology (CERTH).
The Biomedical Research Institute (BRI) located in Ioannina is incorporated in FORTH.
The Sciences Institute of Chemical Engineering (IECHMI) received this official name. The Biomedical Research Institute (BRI) merges to the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB) and now operates as the Biomedical Research Division of IMBB in Ioannina.
Today, FORTH consists of six Research Institutes in three cities of the region:
• Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL)
• Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (ΙΜΒΒ) (with a Biomedical Research Department in Ioannina)
• Computer Science Institute (ICS)
• Institute of Computational Mathematics (IACM) Rethymno
- Institute of Mediterranean Studies (IMS) Patras
• Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (IECHMI).
FORTH headquarters and the Central Division are located in Heraklion, Crete.